Deep learning is arguably the most popular field of AI and machine learning nowadays. Since the AlexNet milestone in 2012, when a deep neural network trained on a Graphical ProcessingUnit (GPU) was proved to outperform the state of the art in image recognition tasks, the advancements in both software and hardware for deep learning systems have spread across a plethora of domains. In this talk, we will walk through deep learning from a practical perspective,aiming at tools that allow engineers, scientists and domain experts to be able to leverage the technology themselves. We will see how to build and train common but powerful deep neural networks using some of the most popular frameworks of recent years. Additionally, we will bring software engineering best practices (often left behind in this field) into the process, learning how to set up a proper working environment for development, and how to track, compare and visualize experiments easily. Finally, we will provide an overview on the current tendencies,whose future development can have an important role both in research and industry.
Space Debris Office, Space Safety Programme Office, ESA
From intact spacecraft back to bits and pieces: An overview of the Theory, Testing, and Modelling of destructive re-entries
Even since the re-entry of Apollo command modules being trailed by fragmenting service modules in the 60'ies, there has been a sense of awareness of the risks associated with having objects meant for spaceflight return through the Earth's atmosphere in a destructive event. The theory associated with these events are within the domain of fluid dynamics connected to material sciences, and generally difficult to reproduce faithfully in on-ground test facilitates or numerical simulations. As such, the knowledge build up during the early decades of spaceflight was mostly derived from empirical observations of the behaviour of complex structures linked with the better understood methodologies coming from the design of thermal protection systems for geometrically simpler shapes and individual material characteristics. With the increased awareness of space debris mitigation issues and consequential increasing amount of re-entering objects, the last decade has seen a revival testing and modelling in the field, including ablating and numerically rebuilding the behaviour of complex spacecraft components and steps towards uncertainty quantification in survivability assessments. These lectures will aim to provide the audience with a background on the problem and its applications, the theoretical framework in which it is to be addressed by testing and modelling techniques, and end with a focus on the major open problems.
Matthias Burri, Florian Rems, Kurt Schwenk and Eicke Risse
German Aerospace Center | Space Operations and Astronaut Training | Spaceflight Technology | On-Orbit-Servicing, Germany
Manipulation of non-cooperative targets and on orbit servicing
Introduction to on-orbit servicing Matthias Burri will briefly present the On-Orbit-Servicing Group at the German Space Operations Center (GSOC) with a short video, and introduce the topic of rendezvous with and manipulation of a non-cooperative target. Agile management for On Orbit Servicing Technology Development Classical management does a great job for recurring tasks and stable conditions, but often fails when facing challenging and highly interconnected problems. Florian Rems will present how the change from classical to lean management improved the resilience of the team, the quality of research and development within the context of the On-Orbit-Servicing-Group and in the Rendezvous, Inspection, Capturing And Detumbling by Orbital Servicing (RICADOS) Project team. (Rems, 2020; H. Benninghoff, 2018) Mars Sample Return test campaign NASA and ESA signed a letter of intent in April 2018 to pursue a Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission. The goal is to return soil samples from Mars to Earth until 2030 for detailed analysis in sophisticated laboratories far too heavy to transport to Mars. ESA’s Earth Return Orbiter (ERO) will catch the orbiting sample container (OS) in low Martian orbit. Sealed in a biocontainment system, the sample will travel back to Earth with ERO and land in the United States. Matthias Burri will present how a GNC demonstration system developed by Airbus to fly on the Earth Return Orbiter was tested on the European Proximity Simulator (EPOS). (Burri, et al.) SCOSA: Scalable On-Board Computer Future onboard computing applications require significantly greater computing performance than is currently provided by standard space qualified onboard computers. Therefore, the German Aerospace Center is developing the Scalable On-board Computing for Space Avionics (ScOSA) (Kurt Schwenk, 2018). Kurt Schwenk or Eicke Risse will present the ScOSA onboard computing platform designed for high performance, reliability and scalability in order to allow missions with more computational autonomy.
Sources: Burri, M., Benninghoff, H., Rems, F., Risse, E.-A., Kanani, K., Masson, A., & Falcoz, A. (n.d.). Mars Sample Return – Test campaign for Near Range Image Processing on European Proximity Operations Simulator. Unpublished.
Sources: H. Benninghoff, F. R. (2018). RICADOS - RENDEZVOUS, INSPECTION, CAPTURING AND DETUMBLING BY ORBITAL. 7th International Conference on Astrodynamics Tools and Techniques. Kurt Schwenk, M. U. (2018). ScOSA - Application Development for a High-Performance Space Qualified. High-Performance Computing in Geoscience and Remote Sensing VII. doi:10.1117/12.2325548
Sources: Rems, F. (2020). Lean and DevOps in GSOC‘s OOS-Group. Intern Presentation
Ulpia Elena Botezatu
Analyst, Romanian Space Agency (ROSA), Romania
National achievements in the field of Space Situational Awareness: the challenges of space security in Romania
Safety and security have always played an essential role in Romania’s state strategy and policy. Recently however these activities accelerated, especially with Romania becoming a member state in the EUSST Consortium as well as with the international emphasis placed on Space Traffic Management. In this context, the presentation attempts to reveal current national activities in the field of Space Situational Awareness by highlighting the work that has been done by the Romanian Space Agency (ROSA) at the level of various international institutions such as the United Nations, European Space Agency, EUSST Consortium, European Commission, International Academy or Astronautics, and NATO. In addition to disseminating information on the activities of ROSA, the presentation aim at creating a vivid discussion on the importance of national activities and the means in which interested entities can align and contribute to it.
Keywords: ROSA, SSA, SST, space security, space policy
SpaceDyS: services and software for space dynamics, Italy
Identification of the parent bodies of a cloud of fragments by means of orbital distances
Once a potential fragmentation event has been detected by the Space Surveillance Network of sensors, it is necessary to confirm and characterise it. Typically, the network is observing a number of fragments crossing their field of view and a fundamental step for the analysts is the identification of the parent body (or bodies) of the observed fragments. We propose a new approach to correlate fragments with known orbits to parent objects, using the definition of a suitable orbital similarity function in the space of orbital elements, like it is usually done in the case of asteroid families and meteor streams identification. The method can be used both if a short time has passed from the instant of breakup and if a long time has already elapsed.The developed method was applied to a known past fragmentation event, using the TLE data of the real fragments,and to some specific cases of simulated fragmentations (both explosions and collisions).
The National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF), Italy
Communication and public outreach in space science
You can't not communicate (1st law of communication). But at the same time, communicating efficiently is an ability that needs to be learned, tested and constantly improved. This is always a must, but most of all in the field of science, where convincing the public (and investors) of the importance and effectiveness of your research is becoming everyday more important.
This course is an introduction to communication for future researchers, engineers, technicians and any other profession related to space science ad science more in general.
We do not intend to train professional communicators but to provide to future professionals in the field, some communicating skills they will need in their career, sooner or later.
The following topics will be addressed in the course:
- An introduction to communication and science communication; Science and Media: how to deal with the media and to collaborate with press offices effectively (2h)
- Education and Public Outreach in Space: making the difference between education, outreach and communication; an introduction on how to plan an Outreach activity and write its Communication Plan (in a space mission or for EC funding opportunities) -1h
- How to write for different media: from the scientific article to press releases, outreach articles and frontpage news -1h
- How to talk to an audience about science: examples of press conferences, public conferences, interviews and lessons -1h
- Science communication in the digital era: using Social Media and other digital tools for Science Communication -1h
The online lessons will be based on the analysis of science communication examples and case studies that will be presented and discussed. Exercises and hands-on activities will also be proposed to the participants.
Alexandru Rusu, Liviu Ionescu and Dan Istriteanu
RARTEL, TELESPAZIO a LEONARDO and THALES company, Romania
Cheia Antennas Retrofit Phase II project
In the framework of the participation of Romania to the Space Situation Awareness (SSA) European activities, the Space Surveillance and Tracking (SST) domain has gained particular relevance in the recent past due to the strong interest of the Romanian institutions and authorities. Some studies have been conducted by Rartel in order to evaluate the existing resources in terms of sensors that could be used for this purpose. In this respect it has been envisaged the possibility to reuse one or two of the existing C band antennas available in the National Space Communication Center in Cheia, located 120 km north ofBucharest. The Cheia satellite 32m parabolic antennas (built in 1977 and 1979), were used in the past for telecommunication services and are not anymore in use. The mentioned study has evaluated the present status of the antennas and the major modification and additions which should be implemented to build a functional SST radar.
The solution proposes the usage of both of them in a quasi-monostatic configuration, where one antenna is transmitting and the other one is receiving. This approach has several advantages, among which:
-possibility to use continues wave mode with 100% Duty Cycle, maximizing the average emitted power;
-increase of the distance of detectable object or decrease of their size;
-possibility to avoid the usage of a diplexer, which usually is one of the most expensive component in such kind of systems.
The main scope of this radar system shall be to detect and track LEO objects. Among the others, the sensor shall contribute to refine the ESA space debris environment model containing physical and orbital information about LEO space debris and to refine a future European Master Catalogue for Space debris. Other uses can be based on national and / or international requests made by entities and institutions acting in the SST domain. The Radar is currently under development by Rartel in a project funded by ESA(European Space Agency). The presentation will focus on the General System Description and on the Modular System breakdown.
Key words: SST radar, ESA, LEO, space debris
Deimos Space Romania
Fragmentation event model and assessment tool (FREMAT) supporting on-orbit fragmentation analysis
The future sustainability of the near Earth environment requires continuing efforts to increase our knowledge of the current and future debris population. Possible on-orbit fragmentation events are a major concern nowadays. The Fragmentation Event Model and Assessment Tool (FREMAT) project for ESA was carried out with the objectives of simulating on-orbit fragmentations, assessing their impact on the space population and evaluating the capability of identification of fragmentation events from existing surveillance networks. In the frame of the FREMAT activity, the implementation of several algorithms related to on-orbit fragmentation events was carried out. FREMAT encompasses three individual tools: Fragmentation Event Generator (FREG), Impact of Fragmentation Events on Spatial density Tool (IFEST) and (Simulation of On-Orbit Fragmentation Tool) SOFT.
Fragmentation Event Generator (FREG) has been conceived to simulate fragmentation events (explosion and collisions). A breakup model based on recent models was the baseline for this tool. We have enhanced the baseline NASA break up model, in order to ensure the consistency of mass and momentum in the created fragment clouds. Its output is one or two clouds of fragments that can later be fed into IFEST or SOFT, or to any other propagator.
The second tool, IFEST (Impact of Fragmentation Events on Spatial density Tool) allows the evaluation of the impact of on-orbit fragmentations in the space debris population. This tool employs a fast semi-analytic propagator for computing the long-term evolution of the clouds of fragments (up to hundreds of years) obtained from FREG, and computes the spatial density caused by those fragments as well as the percent increase in the background spatial density obtained from MASTER. The computation of the spatial density within this tool is validated against results provided by ESA’s POEM tool.
Finally, the third tool, SOFT (Simulation of On-Orbit Fragmentation Tool), has been created to simulate the determination of the type of fragmentation and the objects involved in a fragmentation event when a space surveillance network detects a number of unexpected new objects and a fragmentation event is considered a possible cause. It can process a cloud from FREG, and clouds from other sources can be adapted to be processed by SOFT. Uncertainties in the knowledge of the orbits of the fragments and the presence of foreign objects is also considered. The tool determines the type of fragmentation, calculates the time and location of the event and identifies the parent objects. The objectives of FREMAT cover three different aspects: improvement of the algorithms and methods to be used for issues related to fragmentation events; software implementation to apply those algorithms; and analysis to derive conclusions on the fragmentation problem in regard to the impact on Space population and Space Surveillance Systems.
University of Rome Tor Vergata, Italy
Hamiltonian Resonances in Astrodynamics
The lectures provide a self-contained introduction to Hamiltonian Resonances, framing the subject in
the theory of perturbations treated with the method of normal forms. Approximate resonances, detuning and
adiabatic changes are also discussed. Applications to Astrodynamics range from orbits around the collinear points
of the restricted 3-body problems to those in the geo-potential and in non-Keplerian potentials.
Robotics Innovation Center, German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI), Germany
Lie group based modelling of robot kinematics & dynamics and an optimization based view on robotics
Lie group based modelling of robots and mathematical optimization have turned out to be very powerful tools in robotics. The robotics community is increasingly subscribing to the paradigms of geometric modelling and treating every robot task as a constrained optimization problem. This becomes especially important when we want to achieve efficient and accurate dynamic control of robots. The aims of this lecture are to provide: 1) an introduction to geometric methods for solving robot kinematics & dynamics and, 2) holistic optimization based view of robotics. Here, “geometric” refers to the use of screws and Lie groups, which has led to a consistent, efficient and user-friendly modelling framework for robotics. The "optimization" based view of robotics here brings together three important insights. First, taking inspiration from analytical mechanics (in particular Lagrangian formulation), it will be shown how our universe is a natural optimizer and how our laws of classical physics are a result of this optimization process. Second, building dynamic and energy efficient robots requires an optimal design where its natural dynamics is in harmony with the task's dynamics. Third, it will be argued that optimal design is not enough alone, we also need optimal control which exploits dynamics of the robot instead of cancelling it out.
Giovanni F. Gronchi
University of Pisa, Italy
The linkage problem
We shall speak about two important topics concerning the research being conducted within the network Stardust-R: both these topics deals with a linkage problem.
The first topic is about the linkage of astrometric observations to compute asteroid orbits. With the large amount of optical observations collected with modern telescopes, we have to identify
Very Short Arcs (VSAs) of asteroid observations made in different nights as belonging to the same celestial body. This identification
can be performed by putting together the data contained in different VSAs and trying to compute an orbit. We shall review some modern orbit
determination methods introduced to deal with this problem, and show examples of their application.
The second topic is about the linkage of different dynamical systems: in particular we model the evolution of a given system by
patching different dynamics, simpler than the given one. One interesting case is when the simpler dynamics correspond to integrable
systems. We shall describe the case of the Sun-shadow dynamics, i.e. the planar motion of a mass particle in a force field defined by
patching Kepler's and Stark's dynamics: this can be seen as a basic model for the motion of an Earth satellite perturbed by the solar
radiation pressure and considering the Earth shadow effect.
Astronomical Institute of the Romanian Academy, IMCCE, Observatoire de Paris, Romania and France
Meteors, meteorites, and their parent bodies (Public lecture)
Correlating meteors and meteorites with their exact source bodies has been a long standing challenge. Answering this requires the interplay of telescopic, laboratory, and dynamical research. Astronomical measurements of near-Earth asteroids, as possible analogs to more frequent meteorite deliveries, have forged ahead to encompass more than 1,000 individual objects. Dynamics of meteors obtained by extended allsky networks reveals robust statistics and possible relation with parent bodies populations. This talk will focus on the intersection of the telescopic and the allsky data with dynamical models and the latest results for major meteorite classes.